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Turner Syndrome

What is Turner syndrome?

Turner syndrome is a genetic disorder that affects a girl's development and appearance. It can also cause health problems such as infertility and heart problems.

What causes Turner syndrome?

What are the symptoms of Turner syndrome?

Turner syndrome can cause many different symptoms. The symptoms may be mild for some people. But for others, Turner syndrome can cause serious health problems.

Some of the symptoms of Turner syndrome affect a person's appearance. Most people with Turner syndrome are shorter than average. They may also have physical features such as:

  • A neck that is short and has extra skin (a "webbed" neck)
  • A low hairline in the back
  • Low-set ears
  • Swollen hands and feet

People with Turner syndrome may be born with heart and kidney defects. They usually don't have typical sexual development and are infertile. They are also at risk for other health problems such as high blood pressure, type 2 diabetes, osteoporosis, and thyroid problems.

How is Turner syndrome diagnosed?

Health care providers diagnose Turner syndrome based on symptoms and a genetic blood test called a karyotype test. Sometimes it is found in prenatal testing.

What are the treatments for Turner syndrome?

There is no cure for Turner syndrome, but there are treatments for some of the symptoms:

  • If they are started in early childhood, hormone injections can often increase adult height by a few inches
  • Estrogen replacement therapy (ERT) can help start sexual development. It also protects against bone loss
  • Assisted reproduction technologies can help some women with Turner syndrome get pregnant

People who have Turner syndrome need regular health checks. It's also important for them to have a care team that includes specialists who can treat the health problems caused by Turner syndrome.

NIH: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development

Urethral Disorders

The urethra is the tube that allows urine to pass out of the body. In men, it's a long tube that runs through the penis. It also carries semen in men. In women, it's short and is just above the vagina. Urethral problems may happen due to aging, illness, or injury. They include:

  • Urethral cancer - a rare cancer that happens more often in men
  • Urethral stricture - a narrowing of the opening of the urethra
  • Urethritis - inflammation of the urethra, sometimes caused by infection

Urethral problems may cause pain or difficulty passing urine. You may also have bleeding or discharge from the urethra.

Doctors diagnose urethral problems using different tests. These include urine tests, x-rays and an examination of the urethra with a scope called a cystoscope. Treatment depends on the cause of the problem. It may include medicines and, in severe cases, surgery.

Vaginitis

What is vaginitis?

Vaginitis, also called vulvovaginitis, is an inflammation or infection of the vagina. It can also affect the vulva, which is the external part of a woman's genitals. Vaginitis can cause itching, pain, discharge, and odor.

Vaginitis is common, especially in women in their reproductive years. It usually happens when there is a change in the balance of bacteria or yeast that are normally found in your vagina. There are different types of vaginitis, and they have different causes, symptoms, and treatments.

What causes vaginitis?

Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is the most common vaginal infection in women ages 15-44. It happens when there is an imbalance between the "good" and "harmful" bacteria that are normally found in a woman's vagina. Many things can change the balance of bacteria, including:

  • Taking antibiotics
  • Douching
  • Using an intrauterine device (IUD)
  • Having unprotected sex with a new partner
  • Having many sexual partners

Yeast infections (candidiasis) happen when too much candida grows in the vagina. Candida is the scientific name for yeast. It is a fungus that lives almost everywhere, including in your body. You may have too much growing in the vagina because of:

  • Antibiotics
  • Pregnancy
  • Diabetes, especially if it is not well-controlled
  • Corticosteroid medicines

Trichomoniasis can also cause vaginitis. Trichomoniasis is a common sexually transmitted disease. It is caused by a parasite.

You can also have vaginitis if you are allergic or sensitive to certain products that you use. Examples include vaginal sprays, douches, spermicides, soaps, detergents, or fabric softeners. They can cause burning, itching, and discharge.

Hormonal changes can also cause vaginal irritation. Examples are when you are pregnant or breastfeeding, or when you have gone through menopause.

Sometimes you can have more than one cause of vaginitis at the same time.

What are the symptoms of vaginitis?

The symptoms of vaginitis depend on which type you have.

With BV, you may not have symptoms. You could have a thin white or gray vaginal discharge. There may be an odor, such as a strong fish-like odor, especially after sex.

Yeast infections produce a thick, white discharge from the vagina that can look like cottage cheese. The discharge can be watery and often has no smell. Yeast infections usually cause the vagina and vulva to become itchy and red.

You may not have symptoms when you have trichomoniasis. If you do have them, they include itching, burning, and soreness of the vagina and vulva. You may have burning during urination. You could also have gray-green discharge, which may smell bad.

How is the cause of vaginitis diagnosed?

To find out the cause of your symptoms, your health care provider may:

  • Ask you about your medical history
  • Do a pelvic exam
  • Look for vaginal discharge, noting its color, qualities, and any odor
  • Study a sample of your vaginal fluid under a microscope

In some cases, you may need more tests.

What are the treatments for vaginitis?

The treatment depends on which type of vaginitis you have.

BV is treatable with antibiotics. You may get pills to swallow, or cream or gel that you put in your vagina. During treatment, you should use a condom during sex or not have sex at all.

Yeast infections are usually treated with a cream or with medicine that you put inside your vagina. You can buy over-the-counter treatments for yeast infections, but you need to be sure that you do have a yeast infection and not another type of vaginitis. See your health care provider if this is the first time you have had symptoms. Even if you have had yeast infections before, it is a good idea to call your health care provider before using an over-the-counter treatment.

The treatment for trichomoniasis is usually a single-dose antibiotic. Both you and your partner(s) should be treated, to prevent spreading the infection to others and to keep from getting it again.

If your vaginitis is due to an allergy or sensitivity to a product, you need to figure out which product is causing the problem. It could be a product that you started using recently. Once you figure it out, you should stop using the product.

If the cause of your vaginitis is a hormonal change, your health care provider may give you estrogen cream to help with your symptoms.

Can vaginitis cause other health problems?

It is important to treat BV and trichomoniasis, because having either of them can increase your risk for getting HIV or another sexually transmitted disease. If you are pregnant, BV or trichomoniasis can increase your risk for preterm labor and preterm birth.

Can vaginitis be prevented?

To help prevent vaginitis:

  • Do not douche or use vaginal sprays
  • Use a latex condom when having sex. If your or your partner is allergic to latex, you can use polyurethane condoms.
  • Avoid clothes that hold in heat and moisture
  • Wear cotton underwear

Vegetarian Diet

A vegetarian diet focuses on plants for food. These include fruits, vegetables, dried beans and peas, grains, seeds and nuts. There is no single type of vegetarian diet. Instead, vegetarian eating patterns usually fall into the following groups:

  • The vegan diet, which excludes all meat and animal products
  • The lacto vegetarian diet, which includes plant foods plus dairy products
  • The lacto-ovo vegetarian diet, which includes both dairy products and eggs

People who follow vegetarian diets can get all the nutrients they need. However, they must be careful to eat a wide variety of foods to meet their nutritional needs. Nutrients vegetarians may need to focus on include protein, iron, calcium, zinc and vitamin B12.

United States Department of Agriculture

Anatomy

Anatomy is the science that studies the structure of the body. On this page, you'll find links to descriptions and pictures of the human body's parts and organ systems from head to toe.

If you are thinking about hospice, palliative care, or home health, please do not hesitate to contact us. We will be happy to answer any questions and even visit your home for a free consultation.


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