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What is fatigue?

Fatigue is a feeling of weariness, tiredness, or lack of energy. It can interfere with your usual daily activities. Fatigue can be a normal response to physical activity, emotional stress, boredom, or lack of sleep. But sometimes it can be a sign of a mental or physical condition. If you have been feeling tired for weeks, contact your health care provider. They can help you find out what's causing your fatigue and recommend ways to relieve it.

What causes fatigue?

Fatigue itself is not a disease; it's a symptom. It can have many different causes, including pregnancy and various medical problems, treatments, and lifestyle habits such as:

  • Medical problems:
    • Chronic (long-lasting) diseases such as diabetes, COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease), and heart, liver, kidney and thyroid diseases
    • Untreated pain and diseases like fibromyalgia
    • Anemia
    • Infections
    • Parkinson's disease
    • Sleep apnea and other sleep disorders
    • Recent stroke
    • Mental disorders such as depression and anxiety
  • Treatments:
    • Cancer treatments such as chemotherapy, radiation, and bone marrow transplants
    • Recovering from major surgery
    • Taking certain medicines, such as antidepressants, antihistamines, and medicines for nausea and pain
  • Lifestyle habits:
    • Not getting enough sleep
    • Staying up too late
    • Drinking too much alcohol
    • Substance use
    • Having too much caffeine (which can keep you from getting a good night's sleep)
    • Getting too little or too much exercise

Overwhelming fatigue is part of a disorder called myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS). The fatigue caused by this disorder is different from a tired feeling that goes away after you rest. Instead, the fatigue in ME/CFS lasts a long time, does not get better with rest, and limits your ability to do ordinary daily activities.

What can I do to manage fatigue?

If you've had fatigue that does not get better after several weeks, call your provider. They will ask questions about your sleep, daily activities, appetite, and exercise. They will likely do a physical exam and order lab tests. Once they decide on a diagnosis, they can tell you what treatments might help.

You can also make some lifestyle changes to feel less tired:

  • Get regular physical activity
  • Improve your sleep habits
  • Stop smoking (if you smoke), since smoking is linked to many diseases that can cause fatigue
  • Manage stress
  • Eat a healthy diet and avoid alcohol

It also may be helpful for you to keep a fatigue diary. This can help you find patterns throughout the day, such as when you feel more tired and when you have more energy. It can also help you plan for activities that may give you more energy.

NIH: National Institute on Aging

Heart Failure

What is heart failure?

Heart failure means that your heart can't pump enough oxygen-rich blood to meet your body's needs. Heart failure doesn't mean that your heart has stopped or is about to stop beating. But without enough blood flow, your organs may not work well, which can cause serious problems.

Heart failure can affect one or both sides of your heart:

  • With right-sided heart failure, your heart is too weak to pump enough blood to your lungs to get oxygen.
  • With left-sided heart failure, your heart can't pump enough oxygen-rich blood out to your body. This happens when the left side of your heart becomes either:
    • Too weak to pump enough blood.
    • Too thick or stiff to relax and fill with enough blood.

Left-sided heart failure is more common than right-sided heart failure.

What causes heart failure?

Heart failure can start suddenly after a medical condition or injury damages your heart muscle. But in most cases, heart failure develops slowly from long-term medical conditions.

Conditions that can cause heart failure include:

  • Arrhythmia (a problem with the rate or rhythm of your heartbeat)
  • Cardiomyopathy
  • Congenital heart defects or other types of heart diseases that you are born with
  • Coronary artery disease
  • Endocarditis
  • Heart attack
  • Heart valve diseases
  • High blood pressure
  • A blood clot in your lung
  • Diabetes
  • Certain severe lung diseases, such as COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease)
  • Obesity

Over time, left-sided heart failure can lead to right-sided heart failure.

Who is more likely to develop heart failure?

Heart failure can happen at any age. It happens to both men and women, but men often develop it at a younger age than women. Your chance of developing heart failure increases if:

  • You're 65 years old or older. Aging can weaken and stiffen your heart muscle.
  • Your family health history includes relatives who have or have had heart failure.
  • You have changes in your genes that affect your heart tissue.
  • You have habits that can harm your heart, including:
    • Smoking
    • Eating foods high in fat, cholesterol, and sodium (salt)
    • Having an inactive lifestyle
    • Alcohol use disorder (AUD)
    • Illegal drug use
  • You have other medical conditions that can affect your heart, including:
    • Any heart or blood vessel conditions, including high blood pressure
    • Serious lung diseases
    • Infection, such as HIV or COVID-19
    • Obesity
    • Diabetes
    • Sleep apnea
    • Chronic kidney disease
    • Anemia
    • Iron overload disease
    • Cancer treatments that can harm your heart, such as radiation and chemotherapy
  • You are African American. African Americans are more likely to develop heart failure and have more serious cases at younger ages than people of other races. Factors such as stigma, discrimination, income, education, and geographic region can also affect their risk of heart failure.
What are the symptoms of heart failure?

The symptoms of heart failure depend on which side of your heart is affected and how serious your condition has become. Most symptoms are caused by reduced blood flow to your organs and fluid buildup in your body.

Fluid buildup happens because the flow of blood through your heart is too slow. As a result, blood backs up in the vessels that return the blood to your heart. Fluid may leak from the blood vessels and collect in the tissues of your body, causing swelling (edema) and other problems.

Symptoms of heart failure may include:

  • Feeling short of breath (like you can't get enough air) when you do things like climbing stairs. This may be one of the first symptoms you notice.
  • Fatigue or weakness even after rest.
  • Coughing.
  • Swelling and weight gain from fluid in your ankles, lower legs, or abdomen (belly).
  • Difficulty sleeping when lying flat.
  • Nausea and loss of appetite.
  • Swelling in the veins of your neck.
  • Needing to urinate (pee) often.

At first you may have no symptoms or mild symptoms. As the disease gets worse, your symptoms will usually bother you more.

What other problems does heart failure cause?

Fluid buildup and reduced blood flow to your organs can lead to serious problems, including:

  • Breathing problems from fluid in and around your lungs (also called congestive heart failure)
  • Kidney or liver damage including cirrhosis
  • Malnutrition if fluid buildup makes eating uncomfortable or if your stomach doesn't get enough blood flow to digest food properly
  • Other heart conditions, such as irregular heartbeat and sudden cardiac arrest
  • Pulmonary hypertension
How is heart failure diagnosed?

To find out if you have heart failure, your doctor will:

  • Ask about your medical history, including your symptoms
  • Ask about your family health history, including relatives who have had heart failure
  • Do a physical exam
  • Will likely order heart tests and blood tests, including a brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) test

In some cases, your doctor may refer you to a cardiologist (a doctor who specializes in heart diseases) for tests, diagnosis, and care.

What are the treatments for heart failure?

Your treatment will depend on the type of heart failure you have and how serious it is. There's no cure for heart failure. But treatment can help you live longer with fewer symptoms.

Even with treatment, heart failure usually gets worse over time, so you'll likely need treatment for the rest of your life.

Most treatment plans include:

  • Taking medicine
  • Eating less sodium and drinking less liquid to control fluid buildup
  • Making other changes, such as quitting smoking, managing stress, and getting as much physical activity as your health care provider recommends
  • Treating any conditions that may make heart failure worse

You may need heart surgery if:

  • You have a congenital heart defect or damage to your heart that can be fixed.
  • The left side of your heart is getting weaker and putting a device in your chest could help. Devices include:
    • An implantable cardioverter defibrillator.
    • A biventricular pacemaker (cardiac resynchronization therapy).
    • A mechanical heart pump (a ventricular assist device (VAD) or a total artificial heart).
  • Your heart doctor recommends a heart transplant because your heart failure is life-threatening and nothing else is helping.

As part of your treatment, you'll need to pay close attention to your symptoms, because heart failure can worsen suddenly. Your provider may suggest a cardiac rehabilitation program to help you learn how to manage your condition.

Can heart failure be prevented?

You may be able to prevent or delay heart failure if you:

  • Work with your provider to manage any health conditions that increase your risk of developing heart failure
  • Make healthy changes in your eating, exercise, and other daily habits to help prevent heart disease

NIH: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute

Lung Transplantation

A lung transplant removes a person's diseased lung and replaces it with a healthy one. The healthy lung comes from a donor who has died. Some people get one lung during a transplant. Other people get two.

Lung transplants are used for people who are likely to die from lung disease within 1 to 2 years. Their conditions are so severe that other treatments, such as medicines or breathing devices, no longer work. Lung transplants most often are used to treat people who have severe:

  • COPD
  • Cystic fibrosis
  • Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis
  • Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency
  • Pulmonary hypertension

Complications of lung transplantation include rejection of the transplanted lung and infection.

NIH: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute

Oxygen Therapy

What is oxygen?

Oxygen is a gas that your body needs to work properly. Your cells need oxygen to make energy. Your lungs absorb oxygen from the air you breathe. The oxygen enters your blood from your lungs and travels to your organs and body tissues.

Certain medical conditions can cause your blood oxygen levels to be too low. Low blood oxygen may make you feel short of breath, tired, and confused. It can also damage your body. Oxygen therapy can help you get more oxygen.

What is oxygen therapy?

Oxygen therapy is a treatment that provides you with extra oxygen to breathe in. It is also called supplemental oxygen. It is only available through a prescription from your health care provider. You may get it in the hospital, another medical setting, or at home. Some people only need it for a short period of time. Others will need long-term oxygen therapy.

There are different types of devices that can give you oxygen. Some use tanks of liquid or gas oxygen. Others use an oxygen concentrator, which pulls oxygen out of the air. You will get the oxygen through a nose tube (cannula), a mask, or a tent. The extra oxygen is breathed in along with normal air.

There are portable versions of the tanks and oxygen concentrators. They can make it easier for you to move around while using your therapy.

Who needs oxygen therapy?

You may need oxygen therapy if you have a condition that causes low blood oxygen, such as:

  • COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease)
  • Pneumonia
  • COVID-19
  • A severe asthma attack
  • Late-stage heart failure
  • Cystic fibrosis
  • Sleep apnea
What are the risks of using oxygen therapy?

Oxygen therapy is generally safe, but it can cause side effects. They include a dry or bloody nose, tiredness, and morning headaches.

Oxygen poses a fire risk, so you should never smoke or use flammable materials when using oxygen. If you use oxygen tanks, make sure your tank is secured and stays upright. If it falls and cracks or the top breaks off, the tank can fly like a missile.

What is hyperbaric oxygen therapy?

Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) is a different type of oxygen therapy. It involves breathing oxygen in a pressurized chamber or tube. That allows your lungs to gather up to three times more oxygen than you would get by breathing oxygen at normal air pressure. The extra oxygen moves through your blood and to your organs and body tissues.

HBOT is used to treat certain serious wounds, burns, injuries, and infections. It also treats air or gas embolisms (bubbles of air in your bloodstream), decompression sickness suffered by divers, and carbon monoxide poisoning.

But some treatment centers claim that HBOT can treat almost anything, including Alzheimer's disease, autism, cancer, and Lyme disease. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has not cleared or approved the use of HBOT for these conditions. There are risks to using HBOT, so always check with your provider before you try it.

Pleural Disorders

Your pleura is a large, thin sheet of tissue that wraps around the outside of your lungs and lines the inside of your chest cavity. Between the layers of the pleura is a very thin space. Normally it's filled with a small amount of fluid. The fluid helps the two layers of the pleura glide smoothly past each other as your lungs breathe air in and out.

Disorders of the pleura include:

  • Pleurisy - inflammation of the pleura that causes sharp pain with breathing
  • Pleural effusion - excess fluid in the pleural space
  • Pneumothorax - buildup of air or gas in the pleural space
  • Hemothorax - buildup of blood in the pleural space

Many different conditions can cause pleural problems. Viral infection is the most common cause of pleurisy. The most common cause of pleural effusion is congestive heart failure. Lung diseases, like COPD, tuberculosis, and acute lung injury, cause pneumothorax. Injury to the chest is the most common cause of hemothorax. Treatment focuses on removing fluid, air, or blood from the pleural space, relieving symptoms, and treating the underlying condition.

NIH: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute

If you are thinking about hospice, palliative care, or home health, please do not hesitate to contact us. We will be happy to answer any questions and even visit your home for a free consultation.



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